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Termites are known to take pollen and frequently see blossoms,177 so are regarded as potential pollinators for a number of flowering plants.178 One flower in particular, Rhizanthella gardneri, is regularly pollinated by foraging workers, and it's perhaps the only Orchidaceae blossom in the world to be pollinated by termites.177
Many plants have developed powerful defences against termites. However, seedlings are vulnerable to termite attacks and need additional protection, as their defence mechanisms only develop when they've passed the seedling stage.179 Defence is typically achieved by secreting antifeedant compounds into the woody cell walls.180 This lowers the ability of termites to efficiently digest the cellulose.
When kept close to the extract, they become disoriented and eventually die.181.
Termite populations can be substantially impacted by environmental changes including those caused by human intervention. A Brazilian study investigated the termite assemblages of 3 websites of Caatinga under different levels of anthropogenic disturbance in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil were sampled using 65 x 2 m transects.182 A total of 26 species of termites were present in the 3 sites, and 196 encounters were listed in the transects.
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The wood-feeders were the most badly affected feeding team. .
A termite nest can be considered as being composed of two components, both the inanimate and the animate. The animate is all of the termites living inside the colony, and the inanimate part is the structure itself, which is constructed by the termites. Nests can be broadly divided into three main classes: subterranean (completely below ground), epigeal (protruding above the soil surface), and arboreal (constructed above ground, but constantly connected to the ground via shield tubes).184 Epigeal nests (mounds) protrude from the ground with ground contact and are created from ground and sand.
Most termites construct underground colonies rather than multifunctional nests and mounds.186 Primitive termites of today nest in wooden constructions such as logs, stumps and the dead portions of trees, as did termites millions of years back.184.
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To build their nests, termites primarily use faeces, which have many desirable properties as a construction material. Other building materials include partly digested plant material, used in carton nests (arboreal nests built from faecal elements and have a peek at this site timber ), and soil, used in subterranean nest and mound construction. Not all nests are visible, as many nests in tropical woods are situated underground.186 Species in the subfamily Apicotermitinae are great examples of subterranean nest contractors, as they only reside inside tunnels.
Nests and mounds protect the termites' soft bodies against desiccation, light, pathogens and parasites, in addition to providing a fortification against predators.188Nests made from carton are especially weak, and so the inhabitants use counter-attack approaches against invading predators. .
Arboreal carton nests of mangrove swamp-dwelling Nasutitermes are enriched in lignin and depleted in cellulose and xylans. This change is caused by bacterial decay in the intestine of their termites: they use their faeces as a carton building material. Arboreal termites nests can account for up to 2% of above ground carbon monoxide in Puerto Rican mangrove swamps.
Some species build complex nests called polycalic nests; this habitat is known as polycalism. Polycalic species of termites sort numerous nests, or calies, connected by subterranean chambers.107 The termite genera Apicotermes and Trinervitermes are known to have polycalic species.191 Polycalic nests appear to be frequent in mound-building species although polycalic arboreal nests have been found in a few species of Nasutitermes.191.
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Nests are considered mounds should they protrude from the earth's surface. A mound provides termites the exact same protection as a nest but is stronger.189 Mounds located in regions having torrential and continuous rainfall are at risk of mound erosion as a result of their clay-rich construction. Those made from carton can offer protection against the rain, and in fact can withstand high precipitation.
By way of example, Cubitermes colonies construct narrow tunnels used as strong points, since the width of the tunnels is small enough for soldiers to obstruct.192 A highly protected room, known as the"queens cell", houses the queen and king and can be employed as a last line of defence. .
Species in the genus Macrotermes arguably construct the most complex structures in the insect world, constructing enormous mounds. These mounds are among the largest in the world, reaching a height of 8 to 9 metres (26 to 29 ft ), and consist of chimneys, pinnacles and ridges.56 Another termite species, Amitermes meridionalis, can build nests 3 to 4 metres (9 to 13 ft ) high and 2.5 metres (8 ft ) wide.
The sculptured mounds sometimes have fancy and distinctive types, such as the ones of the compass termite (Amitermes meridionalis and A. laurensis), which assembles tall, wedge-shaped mounds with the long axis oriented about northsouth, which gives them their common name.194195 This orientation has been experimentally shown to assist thermoregulation. The north-south orientation causes the internal temperature of a mound to increase rapidly during the morning when avoiding overheating from the midday sun.